The camelid nanobody (center), first identified in camels, is a heavy-chain antibody that is much smaller and easier to program than antibodies found in most organisms, including humans, like that at left. At right, the monomeric camelid (red) is compared with the structure of the full-sized human antibody. VHH is a nanobody designed to target green fluorescent proteins used in proof-of-principle tests at Rice.

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